Young Consumers in Middle East Countries and Brand Perception in Technological Products

  • Rüştü Salihi
Keywords: Brand, Brand Perception, Iraq, Young Consumer

Abstract

Brand perception is a parameter, which directly affects the purchasing behaviors of the consumers. The image of the brand in the consumer’s mind leads the consumer to approach the brand or move away from the brand subconsciously. In this context, the consumer's perception of brand can be either positive or negative. The continuity of life cycle of the enterprises is directly proportional to the increase in their share in the market. In the increase of market share, brand image comes to the fore and product marketing can be done with the connotations created in the consumer. In other words, the consumer can be guided. Despite some studies have been implemented about consumption habits of the young consumers in Middle Eastern countries, the lack of such studies and the absence of a study to determine brand perception of young consumers in technological products makes this study important. The primary aim of the study is to determine brand perceptions of young consumers in Iraq in technological products. For this purpose, among 1500 students studying at the university in Kirkuk, 65 students were determined using a simple random sampling method as sample volume, with 10% error margin, and 90% confidence interval. As a result of the analysis of the data obtained, it was found that there was a statistically significant relationship between gender and age variables and foreign-titled technological product brand preference frequency, price and quality perceptions; and it was concluded that there is a significant relationship between gender and age variables and brand perception in technological products of young consumers. The analyses regarding income level revealed that there is no statistically significant relationship between this variable and the foreign-titled brand preference frequency, price and quality perceptions.

References

Aaker, D. A. (1996). Measuring brand equity across products and markets. California Management Review, 38(3), 102-120.
Aaker, J. L. (1997). Dimensions of brand personality. Journal of Marketing Research, 34(3), 347–356.
Aaker, J. L. and Fournier, S. (1995). A brand as a character, a partner and a person: Three perspectives on the question of brand personality. Advances in Consumer Research, (22), 391-395.
Aktuğlu, I. K. ve Temel, A. (2006). Tüketiciler markaları nasıl tercih ediyor? (Kamu sektörü çalışanlarının giysi markalarını tercihini etkileyen faktörlere yönelik bir araştırma). Selçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, (15), 43-59.
Alan, H. ve Yeloğlu, O. (2013). Markalaşma ve yenilikçilik. Siirt Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi İktisadi Yenilik Dergisi, 1(1), 13-26.
Alhaddad, A. (2014). The effect of brand image and brand loyalty on brand equity. International Journal of Business and Management Invention, 3(5), 28-32.
Al-Najjar, S. M. and Jawad, M. K. (2016). Measuring customers' perceptions and readiness to accept e-commerce in Iraq: an empirical study. Journal of Marketing Management, 4(1), 151-162.
Ambrose, G. ve Harris, P. (2010). Görsel grafik tasarım sözlüğü, Çev. B. Barhana, İstanbul: Literatür Yayıncılık,
Ameen, N. (2017). Arab users’ acceptance and use of mobile phones: a case of young users in Iraq, Jordan and UAE, A Thesis in fulfilment of the requirements of Anglia Ruskin University for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.
Arthur Rooney, J. (1995). Branding: a trend for today and tomorrow. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 4(4), 48-55.
Avcılar, M.Y. (2008). Tüketici temelli marka değeri ölçümü. Ç.Ü. Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 17(1), 11-30.
Ayas, N. (2012). Marka Değeri Algılamalarının Tüketici Satın Alma Davranışı Üzerine Etkisi. Girişimcilik ve Kalkınma Dergisi, 7(1), 163-183.
Campbell, M. C. (2002). Building brand equity: (A presentation given at the medical marketing association annual conference). Journal of Medical Marketing, 2(3), 208-218.
Ceritoğlu, A. B. (2004). Genç tüketicilerde marka bilincinin oluşması ve marka sadakati kavramlarının incelenmesi ve konu ile ilgili bir uygulama. Marmara Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü İşletme Anabilim Dalı, Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, İstanbul.
Çal, B. ve Erdem, A. (2017). Erdem, A. Genç Tüketicilerin Ürünün Yenilik Derecesi Algısının Algılanan Kalite Üzerindeki Etkisi. Uluslararası İktisadi ve İdari İncelemeler Dergisi,1, 197-208.
Davies, G., Chun, R., Silva, R. V., Roper, S. (2001). The personification metaphor as a measurement approach for corporate reputation. Corporate Reputation Review, 4(2), 113–127.
Dehkordi, L. F., Shahnazari, A. and Noroozi, A. (2011). A study of the factors that influence the acceptance of e-commerce in developing countries: a comparative survey between Iran and United Arab Emirates. Interdisciplinary Journal of Research in Business, 1(6), 44-49.
Demir, N. (2013). Genç tüketicilerin demografik özelliklerinin marka tercih etme nedenlerinde ve marka sadakatlerinde oluşturduğu farklılığın belirlenmesi. Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Niğde Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Üretim Yönetimi ve Pazarlama Bilim Dalı, Niğde.
Diamantopoulos, A., Gereth, S. & Ian, G. (2005). The impact of brand extensions on brand personality: experimental evidence. European Journal of Marketing, 39(1/2), 129-149.
Dowling, G. (2002). Customer relationship management: in B2C markets, often less is more. California Management Review, 44(3), 87-104.
Eid, M. I. (2011). Determinants of e-commerce customer satisfaction, trust, and loyalty in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 12(1), 78.
Fournier, S. (1998). Consumers and their brands: Developing relationship theory in consumer research. Journal of Consumer Research, 24(4), 343-373.
Hoeffler, S. ve Keller, K. L. (2002). Building brand equity through corporate societal marketing. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 21(1), 78-89.
İçöz, O. (2013). Turistik Ürün Pazarlamasında Marka İmajının Rolü ve Bölgesel Marka İmajı Yaratma, Doktora Tezi, Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, İzmir.
Karasar, N. (2016). Bilimsel Araştırma Yöntemi, 31. Baskı, Ankara: Nobel Akademik Yayıncılık.
Keller, K. L. (1993). Conceptualizing, measuring, and managing customer-based brand equity. Journal of Marketing, 57(1), 1-22.
Lassar, W., Mittal, B. ve Sharma, A. (1995). Measuring customer-based brand equity. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 12(4), 11-19.
McAlexander, J. H., Schouten, J. W, Koenig, H. F. (2002). Building brand community. Journal of Marketing, (66), 38-54.
Özkırış, B. (2010). Tüketicinin imajı ile marka imajı arasındaki uyumun marka sadakati üzerindeki etkileri, Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, Gebze Yüksek Teknoloji Enstitüsü, Gebze.
Porter, M. E. (1980). Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analysing Industries and Competitors. New York: Free Press.
Rohwerder, B. (2015), Poverty eradication in Iraq, http://www.gsdrc.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/HDQ1259.pdf, Erişim Tarihi: 25.03.2019.
Sönmez, E. (2009). Giyimde marka bağlılığı ve marka duyarlılığı: gençler üzerine bir araştırma. Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, Erciyes Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Kayseri.
Supphellen, M. (2000). Understanding core brand equity: guidelines for in-depth elicitation of brand associations. International Journal of Market Research, 42(3), 1-14.
Tucker, W. T. (1964). The development of brand loyalty. Journal of Marketing Research, 1(3), 32-35.
Uluışık, Ö. (2016). Bir şehirde oturanların memnuniyet düzeylerinin, marka şehir oluşturmaya olan etkisi (Adıyaman örneği). Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Türk Hava Kurumu Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Ankara.
Uzoka, F., Shemi, A. and Seleka, G. (2007). Behavioral influences on e-commerce adoption in a developing country context. The Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, (28), 1-15.
Üstün, B. ve Tutal, O. (2008). Tüketim alışkanlıklarındaki değişimler ve bu değişimlerin alışveriş mekânlarına etkisinin Eskişehir örneğinde irdelenmesi. Anadolu Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 8(2), 259-282.
Yılmaz, G. (2009). Marka iletişim faaliyetlerinin genç tüketicilerin marka tercihlerine etkileri; GSM sektöründe bir uygulama. Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Marmara Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, İstanbul.
Published
2019-12-31
Section
Makaleler